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Description: The myth persists that in 1492 the Western Hemisphere was an untamed wilderness and that it was European settlers who harnessed and transformed its ecosystems. But scholarship shows that forests, in particular, had been altered to varying degrees well before the arrival of Europeans. Native populations had converted much of the forests to successfully cultivated stands, especially by means of burning. Nevertheless, some researchers have maintained that the extent, frequency, and impact of such burning was minimal. One geographer claims that climatic change could have accounted for some of the changes in forest composition; another argues that burning by native populations was done only sporadically, to augment the effects of natural fires. However, a large body of evidence for the routine practice of burning exists in the geographical record. One group of researchers found, for example, that sedimentary charcoal accumulations in what is now the northeastern United States are greatest where known native American settlements were greatest. Other evidence shows that, while the characteristics and impact of fires set by native populations varied regionally according to population size, extent of resource management techniques, and environment, all such fires had markedly different effects on vegetation patter than did natural fires. Controlled burning crated grassy openings such as meadows and glades. Burning also promoted a mosaic quality to North and south American ecosystems, creating forests in many different stages of ecological development. Much of the mature forest land was characterized by open herbaceous undergrowth, another result of the clearing brought about by burning. In North American, controlled burning crated conditions favorable to berries and other fire-tolerant and sun-loving foods. Burning also converted mixed stands of trees to homogeneous forest, for example the longleaf, slash pine, and scrub oak forests of the southeastern U.S. natural fires do account for some of this vegetation, but regular burning clearly extended and maintained it. Burning also influenced forest composition in the tropics, where natural fires are rare. An example is the pine-dominant forests of Nicaragua, where warm temperatures and heavy rainfall naturally favor mixed tropical or rain forests. While there are primarily grow in cooler, drier, higher elevations, regions where such vegetation is in large part natural and even pre human. Today, the Nicaraguan pines occur where there has been clearing followed by regular burning, and the same is likely to have occurred in the past: such forests ere present when Europeans arrived and were found only in areas where native settlements were substantial; when these settlements were abandoned, the land returned to mixed hardwoods. This succession is also evident elsewhere in similar low tropical elevations in the Caribbean and Mexico.

1. The word "succession" mentioned in last line refers to

Description: Mobile phone sales have increased dramatically over the last year. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, the T-Konnect company plans to rapidly increase the production of its own brands, while continuing to heavily invest in advertising its brands.

2. Which of the following, if true, provides most support for the view that T-Konnect cannot increase its sales by adopting the strategy described above?

Description: In its annual report released today, Company Y indicates that all of its manufacturing plants plan to begin converting the raw material of its product from Material A, which is rapidly becoming scare, to a new synthetic Material B currently under development in its laboratories. Implementation of this plan will almost absolutely increase the company's cost, since even if Material B is practical for use it can be expected to cost considerably more than Material A.

3. Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the argument above?

4. The MP rose up and said that, in her opinion, she thought the Women's Reservation bill should be passed on unanimously

5. It is commonly thought in our society that preserving the environment is somehow linked with compromising on economic terms. However, studies show that the use of green technologies and renewable sources of energy should solve the energy crisis to a great extent without putting any burden on the existing natural resources, which means the economic growth of the country/region in question doesn't get hampered owing to environmental concerns. It is the greed to possess and enjoy as many luxuries as possible that has led to the state in which we find ourselves, today.

Description: Nowadays, almost everyone is equipped with a mobile phone, mainly because mobile phones offer a fast and convenient way of communication. It has become a standard appliance for most persons. However, a new study reports that mobile phones are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious diseases. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that mobile phones should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

7. In contrast to environmentalists proposals to limit emissions of certain pollutants, the administration proposed calling for mandatory restrictions of only three such pollutants from power plants-mercury, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides-and the plan would delay such cuts until 2010 or later

Description: It was once believed that women are born with all the eggs they’ll ever have. In a study published in Nature Medicine, Jonathan Tilly, professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology found that stem cells taken from a women’s ovaries can be used to create new eggs or oocytes, a potentially groundbreaking discovery for fertility treatments. Using donated frozen ovaries from doctors in Japan who treat women seeking gender reassignment, Tilly’s team isolated egg-producing stem cells in human ovaries using new cell-sorting techniques to coax them into developing oocytes. Building on research by Chinese scientists, they then fished out a protein believed to sit on the surface of only those stem cells and tracked them by inserting a gene into the cells which caused them to glow green. If the cells produced eggs, the eggs would also glow green. The cells were then injected into biopsied human ovarian tissue that was then grafted beneath the skin of mice. Within 7 to 14 days, the graft had produced a budding of oocytes, with some of the eggs glowing with the fluorescent tag, proving that they came from the stem cells. But others did not, which suggested they were already present in the human tissue before the injection. “The discovery opens the door for development of unprecedented technologies to overcome infertility in women. If the process can be guided correctly, there is a chance that sometime in the future, we might get to the point of actually having an unlimited source of human eggs, which would rewrite human-assisted reproduction”, Tilly said in a press release.

8. According to the passage, the reason that Tilly’s team inserted a gene into the stem cells was to

9. Some thinkers propound that one becomes conscious of existence through one's senses. It is sensations which make us conscious in the sense of personal feeling. Neither can conscious and physical state be the same, nor can they be really different. In the passge the last statement illustrates which of the following?

Description: In many corporations, senior employees are being replaced by fresh college graduates in order to save money. However, many senior workers who lose their jobs will need government aid to survive, and the same corporations that are replacing senior employees will eventually pay for that government aid through increased taxes and unemployment insurance payments. 

10. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author's argument?

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